1049/3 - Le minoranze albanesi e macedoni nel Regno serbo-croato-sloveno

Nell'ambito della Conferenza della pace di Parigi, il Consiglio Supremo istituiva la Commissione dei Nuovi Stati, incaricata di studiare le clausole da inserire nei trattati di pace con gli Stati di nuova formazione per assicurare la tutela delle minoranze etniche, linguistiche e religiose stabilite nei rispettivi territori. Nella riunione del 15 luglio 1919, mentre la Commissione discuteva il progetto di trattato con il Regno serbo-croato-sloveno, il Delegato italiano, De Martino, presentava un progetto di clausole per la protezione delle minoranze macedone ed albanese in quel Paese. In relazione alla Macedonia, il progetto italiano, inteso a riconoscere una limitata autonomia a quel territorio, era così formulato:

«Jugo-Slavia agrees to organise the territory of Macedonia within the frontiers fixed by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers under the form of an autonomous unit within the Jugo-Slav State, provided with the greatest degree of self-government compatible with the unity of the Jugo-Slav State. Article... The territory of Macedonia shall have an autonomous Diet. This Diet shall exercise the legislative power in matters of language, education, and religion, and for questions of local administration and all others the competence for which may be assigned to it by the laws of the Jugo-Slav State. The Governor of the said territory of Macedonia shall be named by the Jugo-Slav Government and shall be responsible to the Diet. Article... Jugo-Slavia agrees that the officials of the territory of Macedonia shall be chosen as far as possible from among the inhabitants of this territory. Article... Jugo-Slavia guarantees to the territory of Macedonia an equitable representation in the Legislative Assembly of the Jugo-Slav State, to which this territory shall send deputies elected according to the constitution of the Jugo-Slav State. However, the said deputies shall not have the right to vote in the Skupshtina in any legislative matter of the same order as those assigned to the competence of the Diet of Macedonia». (All. A a Thirty-third Meeting of the Committee, Parigi, 15 luglio 1919, ASE, CPA, 371)

Le clausole per la protezione della minoranza albanese erano del seguente tenore:

«Jugo-Slavia agrees to grant to the Albanian district of Ipek, Djakova, Prizrend, and Dibra, autonomy in language, instruction and religion, as well as in the questions of local administration. Article... An Administrative Council for each of the above-mentioned localities and sitting in each of them shall have the power to regulate these matters as well as all others over which jurisdiction shall be granted to it by the laws of the Jugo-Slav State. A religious head, Catholic, Orthodox and Moslem, in each district shall be de jure member of the Administrative Council. The other members shall be elected in conformity with the Laws of the Jugo-Slav State. Article... The Governor of each district shall be appointed by the Jugo-Slav Government. Article... Jugo-Slav agrees that the officials of the Albanian districts shall be chosen as far as possible among the inhabitants of these districts». (All. B a Thirty-third Meeting of the Committee, Parigi, 15 luglio 1919, ibidem)

Nella successiva riunione della Commissione, del 4 agosto 1919, De Martino proponeva quanto segue:

«On Article 7, the Italian Delegation proposed [...] that in place of the last three words of this article there should be substituted the following: "pour l'usage de leur langue, soit oralement, soit par écrit, devant les autorités administratives et judiciaires". In support of their proposal, the Italian Delegation pointed out that it would be equitable to extend this facility to all minorities in new States in view of the fact that said minorities have to apply more frequently to the administrative than to the judicial authorities. The Chairman having objected that this was not now possible, as the Treaty with Poland had already been accepted and signed by this Power [1] , the Italian Delegation deemed it their duty to draw the attention of the Committee to the serious prejudice that would be caused to all minorities by not allowing them to use their own language before the administrative authorities, as well as before the courts, and they referred as an illustration to the case of the Italian minorities in Dalmatia whose right to use the Italian language in their intercourse with the administrative authorities had been recognised even by the laws of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy». (Forty-first Meeting of the Committee, Parigi, 4 agosto 1919, ibidem)

Le clausole proposte dalla Delegazione italiana e relative alla minoranza macedone venivano inserite nel progetto finale adottato dalla Commissione dei Nuovi Stati il 25 agosto 1919, con la precisazione che non erano state accettate dalla Delegazione francese; le altre venivano invece abbandonate. Nessuna di esse, poi, figurava nel testo del Trattato per regolare alcune questioni sorte dal fatto della formazione del nuovo Stato serbo-croato-sloveno, concluso a Saint-Germain il 10 settembre 1919 [2] .

Note

[1] Il riferimento è al Trattato concernente il riconoscimento dell'indipendenza della Polonia e la protezione delle minoranze, firmato a Versailles il 28 giugno 1919 (Trattati e Convenzioni, v. XXIV, p. 395 segg.
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[2] Ibidem, pp. 711-724.
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